Guiding principles on tax planning

Our tax planning requires opportunities in this area to have a substantial level of robustness taking into account the principle of business rationale. This means that aside from factors such as financial impact, complexity and reputation, solid business and/or commercial reasons have to exist. In addition, this means that we do not use (i) contrived or abnormal structures or (ii) secrecy jurisdictions or so-called tax havens for tax avoidance. Considering these principles, we view our tax risk appetite as moderate.